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Container transport is a sustainable delivery of various cargo. No dust, moisture, or rain can enter a shipping container, and they are well-protected against mechanical damage. The main characteristics are regulated by international standard ISO 668.
Shipping containers are made of sheet steel or compound materials. Standardized equipment is intended for multiple use. Loading and downloading is performed by special equipment. Transition from shipping to railway or car transport is performed without extra loading, which optimizes transportation costs.
Types of shipping containers
manufactures make containers with different length:
● ten (1DX, 1D);
● twenty (1CC, 1CX, 1C);
● thirty (1B, 1BBB, 1BB);
● forty feet (1AX, 1A, 1AA, 1AAA).
The length of the four models increases as follows: 2991, 6058, 9125, 12192 mm. Unified width is 2438 mm and height 2591 mm. For the calculation of the optimal placement of cargo, the 20-feet long container is used as a base unit. A forty feet long one takes two and a ten-feet long half of the capacity.
The main purpose of the standard container is the transportation of general or consolidated cargo, which does not require ventilation, or following special temperature regimes. The maximum load bearing capacity of a 20-feet long model remains under 22 tons, the bearing capacity of a 40-feet long container is 26.5 tons.
Marking of shipping containers
For classification standard ISO 6346 is used. Modifications are marked by two Latin letters.
DC is a universal series of 20-feet and 40-feet long models. The specification HTC marks the reinforced structure for heavy loads. The height of CH-products differs from the standard one and equals with the 2700-mm one. The width of the PW- series increased to 2420-2450 mm is meant for placing euro pallets in two rows.
Products with removable cover are marked with indexes OT and TU. Big-size high cargo, which cannot be entered through the door, is loaded into such kind of shipping containers. HT-models have a removable upper part made of sheet metal.
For the transportation of such cargo, which requires the monitoring of the temperature regime, we use refrigerator containers of RT, RE and RS series. Energy is supplied into the refrigerator by an in-built generator or the boat. The possible temperature range is from -25 to +25 degrees.
Liquid loads are transported by TC tank containers. Food liquids like oil, juice and chemical substances or oil products are poured into special containers. Single-use elastic polymer containers are placed in 20-feet long containers. In such modules liquid can be easily pumped in and out.
Open FR-platforms have only end walls. Ventilated models are marked with indexes VT or TC. Containers for bulk are marked with BU or BC and can be filled or emptied through special openings. SN-series are meant for the transportation of cattle, poultry and live fish. Tank containers IMO are meant for the transportation of liquids and gas products.
Variants for use
The main function of containers is to store cargo. Besides that a shipping container is a universal module, which can be re-designed for
● a common room;
● a store;
● a generator room;
● a sauna;
● a sub-station;
● a sanitary unit;
● a mobile office;
● a lab.
The main advantages of such structures is the affordable price, strength and resilience. If necessary, the ready-made module can be transported to another place. Adequately big area enables to divide it into separate sections. During the re-designing process the inner and outer geometry is changed, doors are cut in, windows and doors, engineering communications can be installed.
Specialized modules are widely used in construction, geology, oil production and agriculture. It is a popular option to build temporary houses in regions difficult to access. Sometimes summerhouses in the format of a house-sauna-store-garage are made of several shipping containers.
Shipping cargo is the cheapest variant. This way of transport is used for intercontinental transport, for sending large cargo to long distances.
In addition to transport by sea, containers for goods are used on container ships and railway carriages of special series.
Generally the modules are sent to the loading point some days before the departure of the ship, special equipment or a train. Products are sorted out by weight, purpose, level of hazard, need to connect to a stationary generator. Cargo is placed on special platforms. Movement is followed by GPS and GLONASS systems.